Project Results

CIE TC2-85

Partially driven by xDReflect results, CIE has launch a new technical committee on “Recommendation on the geometrical parameters for the measurement of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)” where outputs of the project will be used to progress on the normalization of the quantity.

Tutorial on Visual Appearance Fundamentals and Measurement:

The day prior to the CIE Expert Symposium on Colour and Visual Appearance a CIE Tutorial on Visual Appearance Fundamentals and Measurement took place in Prague, 5th Sept 2016.
The Tutorial highlighted the results of the xD-Reflect project and put together world experts in the field of BRDF measurements. Attendees were mainly users who want to start or progress in the field of the characterization of the appearance of materials.

Photos from the Tutorial and the CIE Symposium, the poster session and other pictures

Best Practise Guidelines:

Summary and Final Report

The project consortium issues periodically a publishable summary (see below), reporting about the latest achievements of the project.

 animation of the virtual gonioreflectometer

SIMUClip: Virtual gonioreflectometer designed for the simulation of  measurements in order to progress in the uncertainty evaluation. The sphere is the light source, the pink square is the sample held by  the robot, the detector is in green.

animation of a Cook-Torrance BRDF

Specular BRDF: Simulation of the BRDF of a glossy white sample,  using Cook-Torrance model 

List of presentations a published papers:

The scientific results of the xD Reflect project are regularly published in peer reviewed journals and presented on scientific conferences.

    1. Colour gamut of a typical display for the colour reproduction of effect coatings
    2. Measuring and specifying goniochromatic colours
  • Ferrero A., Perales E., Rabal A. M., Campos J., Martínez-Verdú F., Chorro E., Pons A, Color representation and interpretation of special effect coatings, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Feb 2014, Vol. 31, No. 2.
  • Höpe A, xD-Reflect – Multidimensionale Reflektometrie für die Industrie, DfwG Report, 3/2013, ISSN 1860-2835, p. 24 – 40 (2013)
  • Melgosa, M.; Martínez-García, J.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Perales, E.; Martínez-Verdú, F.M.; Dauser, T.,  Measuring color differences in automotive samples with lightness flop: A test of the AUDI2000 color-difference formula, Opt. Exp., 22, 3, 3458-3467 (2014)
  • Andreas Höpe, Annette Koo, Francisco M. Verdu, Frédéric B. Leloup, Gaël Obein, et al., “Multidimensional reflectometry for industry” (xD-Reflect) an European research project”, Proc. SPIE 9018, Measuring, Modeling, and Reproducing Material Appearance, 901804 (February 24, 2014), doi:10.1117/12.2035981,
  • Obein, G., Ouarets, S., Ged, G., 2014, Evaluation of the shape of the specular peak for high glossy surfaces (invited paper), Measuring, Modeling, and Reproducing Material Appearance, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. EI108, 4-5 February, San Francisco, USA.
  • Höpe, A., Koo, A., Verdu, F., Leloup, F., Obein, G., Wübbeler, G., Campos, J., Iacomussi, P., Jaanson, P., Källberg, S., Šmíd, M., 2014, “Multidimensional Reflectometry for Industry” (xD-Reflect) an European research project, Measuring, Modeling, and Reproducing Material Appearance, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. EI108, 4-5 February, San Francisco, USA.
  • Höpe, A., “xD-Reflect” – Multidimensionale Reflektometrie für die Industrie, DfwG 2013, 39. Annual Meeting of the German Society of Color Science and Application e.V., 8. – 10. October 2013, Ilmenau (Germany)
  • Höpe, A., “xD-Reflect” – Multidimensionale Reflektometrie für die Industrie, Special meeting of the DIN committee NA 025-00-24 AA “Tolerances for automotive paints”, Allianz Zentrum Technik (AZT), 15. October 2013, Ismaning (Germany)
  • Ouarets S., Leroux T., Rougie B., Razet A., Obein G., ‘A  high resolution set up devoted to the measurement of the  Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function around the      specular peak, at LNE-CNAM’, Metrologie 2013
  • Höpe A., ‘”xD-Reflect” – Multidimensionale  Reflektometrie für die Industrie’, 39th Annual Meeting of the German Society of Color Science and Application
  • Obein G., ‘The measurement of appearance’, Meeting of NMI  Directors and Member States Representatives
  • Leloup F., Hanselaer P., ‘Optical metrology at the Light  & Lighting Laboratory: where lighting meets appearance’, 2013  BEMEKO Workshop on Measurement: Challenges and Opportunities
  •  Höpe A., Koo A., Verdu F., Leloup F., Obein G., Wübbeler      G., Campos J., Iacomussi P., Jaanson P., Källberg S., Šmíd M., “Multidimensional Reflectometry for Industry” (xD-Reflect) an  European research project’, MMRMA conférence (Measuring, Modeling,  and Reproducing Material Appearance)
  • Obein G., Ouarets S., Ged G., ‘Evaluation of the shape  of the specular peak for high glossy surfaces (invited  paper)’, MMRMA conférence (Measuring, Modeling, and Reproducing  Material Appearance)
  • Ferrero A., Bernad B., Campos J., Martínez-Verdú F.,  Perales E., Van der Lans I., Kirchner E., ‘Towards a better  understanding of the color shift of effect coatings by densely      sampled spectral BRDF measurement’, MMRMA conférence (Measuring,      Modeling, and Reproducing Material Appearance)
  • Leloup F., De Ketelaere W., Audenaert J., Hanselaer P.,   ‘Rapid determination of the photometric bidirectional scatter distribution function by use of a near-field      goniophotometer’, MMRMA conférence (Measuring, Modeling, and  Reproducing Material Appearance)
  • Höpe, A., Forthmann, C., Hauer, K.-O., ‘Optical   Appearance of Special Effect Pigments’,  LENA-Workshop (Laboratory  for Emerging Nanometrology and Analytics)
  • Martínez-Verdú, F.M., ‘New luminaire designs based on  SSL systems for improving the visual harmony in the automotive  sector’, Smart Lighting 2014
  • Li Yang, ‘A brief description of the EMRP project:  xD-Reflect’, ISO/TC6/OPAL group meeting
  • Li Yang, ‘Improved methods for adjusting the UV content      of measurement instrument illumination’, ISO/TC6/OPAL group meeting
  • Francisco M. Martínez-Verdú, V. Viqueira, E. Perales  and E. Chorro, ‘Design of the MSc degree in Colour Technology for  the Automotive Sector’, Science-to-Business Marketing Conference  (S2B)
  •  Leloup F., Hanselaer P., ‘Progress in the soft      metrology of appearance: the contribution of digital image  representations’, SID Display Week 2014
  • Obein G., ‘xDReflect, a European Joint Research Project   devoted to the metrology of the appearance of surfaces’, SCC Bridge  Session at Color, Light & Appearance Week at NIST
  • Ged G., Teisseire J., Garre E., Himbert M., Obein G., ‘Development of a controled metrologiscal gloss scale’, NEWRAD
  • Höpe A., Koo A., Forthmann C., Verdú F.M., Manoocheri      F., Leloup F., Obein G., Wübbeler G., Ged G., Campos J., Hauer      K-O., Yang L., Šmíd M., Langovoy M., Iacomussi P., Jaanson P.,      Källberg S., ‘xD-Reflect – “Multidimensional Reflectometry for      Industry” a research project of the European Metrology Research      Program (EMRP)’, NEWRAD
  • Höpe A., Forthmann C., Hauer K.-O., Langovoy M.,      Schmähling F., Wübbeler G., ‘Virtual experiment uncertainty  analysis of robot-base gonioreflectometers’,  NEWRAD
  • A. Ferrero, ‘From spectrophotometry to appearance      measurements’, Oral presentation for Colour Group at AkzoNobel  Coatings
  • Francisco M. Martínez-Verdú, V. Viqueira, E. Perales and E. Chorro, ‘Designing a b-learning MSc in Colour Engineering  for the Automotive Sector’, International Conference on Education   and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN 2014)
  • Li Yang, ‘Improved methods for adjusting the UV content of measurement instrument illumination for the Papermaking  industry’, SPIE Conference: Novel Optical Systems Design and  Optimization XVII
  • Alejandro Ferrero, Joaquín Campos, Esther Perales, Ana      M. Rabal, Francisco Martínez-Verdú, Alicia Pons, Elisabet Chorro  and M. Luisa Hernanz, ‘Measuring and specifying goniochromatic colors’, 23rd ICO conference
  • Esther Perales, Alejandro Ferrero, Elísabet Chorro,  Valentín Viqueira, Ana Rabal, Alicia Pons, Francisco M. Martínez  Verdú and Joaquín Campos, ‘Color gamut of a typical display for      the color reproduction of effect coatings’, 23rd ICO conference
  • Manuel Melgosa, Luis Gómez-Robledo, Guihua Cui,   Changjun Li, Esther Perales, Francisco M. Martínez-Verdú and  Thomas Dauser, ‘Measuring Color Differences in Gonioapparent   Materials Used in the Automotive Industry’, 23rd ICO conference
  • Höpe, A., ‘Session of the working group “Multigeometrie  Farbmessung”‘, DfwG 2014, 40. Annual meeting of the German Society  of Color Science and Application
  • Langovoy, M.,  Wübbeler, G., Elster, C. , ‘Statistical  analysis of BRDF Data for Computer Graphics and Metrology’, World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science (WCECS 2014)
  • Obein G., Audenaert J., Ged G., Leloup F.,   ‘Metrological issues related to BRDF measurements around the  specular direction in the particular case of glossy      surfaces’, MMRMA conference (Measuring, Modeling, and Reproducing Material Appearance)
  •  Berta Bernad, Alejandro Ferrero, Alicia Pons, Mª Luisa  Hernanz and Joaquín Campos, ‘Upgrade of goniospectrophtometer GEFE  for near-field scattering and fluorescence radiance measurements’, MMRMA conférence (Measuring, Modeling, and      Reproducing Material Appearance)
  • A. Höpe, K.-O. Hauer, S. Teichert, D. Hünerhoff, C. Strothkämper, ‘Goniochromatic and Sparkle properties of effect  pigmented samples in multidimensional configuration’, MMRMA  conference (Measuring, Modeling, and Reproducing Material   Appearance)
  • Langovoy, M., Wübbeler, G., Elster, C. , ‘Novel metric for analysis, interpretation and visualization of BRDF data’, ACM  Transaction on Spatial Algorithms and Systems, submitted Oct 14
  •  Langovoy M., Schmähling F,  Wübbeler G., N. N.,   ‘Virtual experiments and sensitivity analysis for BRDF  measurements on goniochromatism and gloss’,
  • A. Ferrero, J. Campos, E. Perales, F. M.   Martínez-Verdú, I. van der Lans, and E. Kirchner, “Global color      estimation of special-effect coatings from measurements by      commercially available portable multiangle spectrophotometers”,      JOSA, 32(1), 2015
  • Leloup, F., Article published in the popular press,   ‘”Maak kennis met het licht van morgen”  (Discover the light of  tommorow)’, Technical journal “Visie op Kunststof”, n°5, September 2013, REG (KUL)
  •  PhD. Thesis, ‘ “Gonio-espectrofotómetro para medidas de  BRDF de patrones de reflectancia y objetos gonio-aparentes”‘, March 18th, 2014, Universidad de Zaragoza (Zaragoza, Spain)., CSIC
  • Master thesis, ‘“Metodología para el estudio de los efectos de destello y granulado en recubrimientos  gonioaparentes”’, September 2014, Faculty of Optics and Optoimetry,  University Complutense of Madrid (Madrid, Spain)., CSIC
  • PhD. Thesis, ‘High Accuracy Measurements of Standard  Reflection Materials and Goniochromatic Effect Pigments’, 19. September 2014, Technische Universität Carolo–Wilhelmina zu Braunschweig (Germany), PTB
  • Leloup, F., Audenaert, J., Obein, G., Ged, G., Hanselaer, P., “Repeatability and reproducibility of specular gloss meters in theory and practice“, JCT Research, vol. 13, no. 6, 2016, pp. 941-951