Project Results

Delivering impact – Measuring sparkle

CIE TC2-85

Partially driven by xDReflect results, CIE has launch a new technical committee on “Recommendation on the geometrical parameters for the measurement of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)” where outputs of the project will be used to progress on the normalization of the quantity.

Tutorial on Visual Appearance Fundamentals and Measurement:

The day prior to the CIE Expert Symposium on Colour and Visual Appearance a CIE Tutorial on Visual Appearance Fundamentals and Measurement took place in Prague, 5th Sept 2016.
The Tutorial highlighted the results of the xD-Reflect project and put together world experts in the field of BRDF measurements. Attendees were mainly users who want to start or progress in the field of the characterization of the appearance of materials.

Photos from the Tutorial and the CIE Symposium, the poster session and other pictures

Best Practise Guidelines:

Summary and Final Report

The project consortium issues periodically a publishable summary (see below), reporting about the latest achievements of the project.

List of presentations a published papers:

The scientific results of the xD Reflect project were published in peer reviewed journals and presented on scientific conferences.

Presentations :

    1. Colour gamut of a typical display for the colour reproduction of effect coatings
    2. Measuring and specifying goniochromatic colours
  • Höpe, A., “xD-Reflect” – Multidimensionale Reflektometrie für die Industrie, Special meeting of the DIN committee NA 025-00-24 AA “Tolerances for automotive paints”, Allianz Zentrum Technik (AZT), 15. October 2013, Ismaning (Germany)
  • Höpe A., ‘”xD-Reflect” – Multidimensionale  Reflektometrie für die Industrie’, 39th Annual Meeting of the German Society of Color Science and Application
  • Obein G., ‘The measurement of appearance’, Meeting of NMI  Directors and Member States Representatives
  • Höpe, A., Forthmann, C., Hauer, K.-O., ‘Optical   Appearance of Special Effect Pigments’,  LENA-Workshop (Laboratory  for Emerging Nanometrology and Analytics)
  • Martínez-Verdú, F.M., ‘New luminaire designs based on  SSL systems for improving the visual harmony in the automotive  sector’, Smart Lighting 2014
  • Li Yang, ‘A brief description of the EMRP project:  xD-Reflect’, ISO/TC6/OPAL group meeting
  • Li Yang, ‘Improved methods for adjusting the UV content of measurement instrument illumination’, ISO/TC6/OPAL group meeting
  • Obein G., ‘xDReflect, a European Joint Research Project   devoted to the metrology of the appearance of surfaces’, SCC Bridge  Session at Color, Light & Appearance Week at NIST
  •  Langovoy M., Schmähling F,  Wübbeler G., N. N.,   ‘Virtual experiments and sensitivity analysis for BRDF  measurements on goniochromatism and gloss’,

Published papers:

  1. Ouarets S., Leroux T., Rougie B., Razet A., Obein G., ‘A  high resolution set up devoted to the measurement of the  Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function around the      specular peak, at LNE-CNAM’, Metrologie 2013
  2. Höpe A, xD-Reflect – Multidimensionale Reflektometrie für die Industrie, DfwG Report, 3/2013, ISSN 1860-2835, p. 24 – 40 (2013)
  3. Leloup F., Hanselaer P., ‘Optical metrology at the Light  & Lighting Laboratory: where lighting meets appearance’, 2013  BEMEKO Workshop on Measurement: Challenges and Opportunities
  4. Andreas Höpe, Annette Koo, Francisco M. Verdu, Frédéric B. Leloup, Gaël Obein, et al., “Multidimensional reflectometry for industry” (xD-Reflect) an European research project”, Proc. SPIE 9018, Measuring, Modeling, and Reproducing Material Appearance, 901804 (February 24, 2014), doi:10.1117/12.2035981,
  5. Obein, G., Ouarets, S., Ged, G., 2014, Evaluation of the shape of the specular peak for high glossy surfaces (invited paper), Measuring, Modeling, and Reproducing Material Appearance, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. EI108, 4-5 February, San Francisco, USA.
  6. Ferrero A., Bernad B., Campos J., Martínez-Verdú F.,  Perales E., Van der Lans I., Kirchner E., ‘Towards a better  understanding of the color shift of effect coatings by densely      sampled spectral BRDF measurement’, MMRMA conférence (Measuring,      Modeling, and Reproducing Material Appearance)
  7. Leloup F., De Ketelaere W., Audenaert J., Hanselaer P.,   ‘Rapid determination of the photometric bidirectional scatter distribution function by use of a near-field      goniophotometer’, MMRMA conférence (Measuring, Modeling, and  Reproducing Material Appearance)
  8. Ferrero A., Perales E., Rabal A. M., Campos J., Martínez-Verdú F., Chorro E., Pons A, Color representation and interpretation of special effect coatings, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Feb 2014, Vol. 31, No. 2.
  9. Melgosa, M.; Martínez-García, J.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Perales, E.; Martínez-Verdú, F.M.; Dauser, T.,  Measuring color differences in automotive samples with lightness flop: A test of the AUDI2000 color-difference formula, Opt. Exp., 22, 3, 3458-3467 (2014)
  10. Francisco M. Martínez-Verdú, V. Viqueira, E. Perales  and E. Chorro, ‘Design of the MSc degree in Colour Technology for  the Automotive Sector’, Science-to-Business Marketing Conference  (S2B)
  11.  Leloup F., Hanselaer P., ‘Progress in the soft      metrology of appearance: the contribution of digital image  representations’, SID Display Week 2014
  12. Ged G., Teisseire J., Garre E., Himbert M., Obein G., ‘Development of a controled metrologiscal gloss scale’, NEWRAD
  13. Höpe A., Koo A., Forthmann C., Verdú F.M., Manoocheri      F., Leloup F., Obein G., Wübbeler G., Ged G., Campos J., Hauer      K-O., Yang L., Šmíd M., Langovoy M., Iacomussi P., Jaanson P.,      Källberg S., ‘xD-Reflect – “Multidimensional Reflectometry for      Industry” a research project of the European Metrology Research      Program (EMRP)’, NEWRAD
  14. Höpe A., Forthmann C., Hauer K.-O., Langovoy M.,      Schmähling F., Wübbeler G., ‘Virtual experiment uncertainty  analysis of robot-base gonioreflectometers’,  NEWRAD
  15. A. Ferrero, ‘From spectrophotometry to appearance   measurements’, Oral presentation for Colour Group at AkzoNobel  Coatings
  16. Francisco M. Martínez-Verdú, V. Viqueira, E. Perales and E. Chorro, ‘Designing a b-learning MSc in Colour Engineering  for the Automotive Sector’, International Conference on Education   and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN 2014)
  17. Li Yang, ‘Improved methods for adjusting the UV content of measurement instrument illumination for the Papermaking  industry’, SPIE Conference: Novel Optical Systems Design and  Optimization XVII
  18. Alejandro Ferrero, Joaquín Campos, Esther Perales, Ana      M. Rabal, Francisco Martínez-Verdú, Alicia Pons, Elisabet Chorro  and M. Luisa Hernanz, ‘Measuring and specifying goniochromatic colors’, 23rd ICO conference
  19. Esther Perales, Alejandro Ferrero, Elísabet Chorro,  Valentín Viqueira, Ana Rabal, Alicia Pons, Francisco M. Martínez  Verdú and Joaquín Campos, ‘Color gamut of a typical display for  the color reproduction of effect coatings’, 23rd ICO conference
  20. Manuel Melgosa, Luis Gómez-Robledo, Guihua Cui,   Changjun Li, Esther Perales, Francisco M. Martínez-Verdú and  Thomas Dauser, ‘Measuring Color Differences in Gonioapparent   Materials Used in the Automotive Industry’, 23rd ICO conference
  21. Höpe, A., ‘Session of the working group “Multigeometrie  Farbmessung”‘, DfwG 2014, 40. Annual meeting of the German Society  of Color Science and Application
  22. Langovoy, M., Wübbeler, G., Elster, C. , ‘Novel metric for analysis, interpretation and visualization of BRDF data’, ACM  Transaction on Spatial Algorithms and Systems, submitted Oct 14
  23. Langovoy, M.,  Wübbeler, G., Elster, C. , ‘Statistical  analysis of BRDF Data for Computer Graphics and Metrology’, World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science (WCECS 2014)
  24. Obein G., Audenaert J., Ged G., Leloup F.,   ‘Metrological issues related to BRDF measurements around the  specular direction in the particular case of glossy      surfaces’, MMRMA conference (Measuring, Modeling, and Reproducing Material Appearance), Proc. of SPIE Vol. 9398, San Francisco, USA, Febr 2015
  25.  Berta Bernad, Alejandro Ferrero, Alicia Pons, Mª Luisa  Hernanz and Joaquín Campos, ‘Upgrade of goniospectrophtometer GEFE  for near-field scattering and fluorescence radiance measurements’, MMRMA conférence, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 9398, San Francisco, USA, Febr 2015
  26. A. Höpe, K.-O. Hauer, S. Teichert, D. Hünerhoff, C. Strothkämper, ‘Goniochromatic and Sparkle properties of effect  pigmented samples in multidimensional configuration’, MMRMA  conference, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 9398, San Francisco, USA, Febr 2015
  27. A. Ferrero, J. Campos, E. Perales, F. M.   Martínez-Verdú, I. van der Lans, and E. Kirchner, “Global color      estimation of special-effect coatings from measurements by      commercially available portable multiangle spectrophotometers”,  JOSA, 32(1), 2015
  28. Eric Kirchner, Ivo van der Lans, Esther Perales, Francisco Martínez-Verdú, Joaquín Campos, and Alejandro Ferrero, “Visibility of sparkle in metallic paints”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 32(5), p. 921-927, 2015
  29. Ferrero, S. Bayón, “The measurement of Sparkle”, Metrologia, 52, 317-323, 2015
  30. Ferrero, B.Bernad, J.L. Velázquez, A. Pons, M.L. Hernanz, P. Jaanson, F.M. Martínez-Verdú, E. Chorro, E. Perales and J. Campos, “Measurement of goniofluorescence in photoluminiscent materials”, CIE 216:2015, Proceedings of 28th CIE Session, Manchester, UK, 2015
  31. Ferrero and S. Bayón, “Measuring sparkle of effect coatings”, CIE 216:2015, Proceedings of 28th CIE Session, Manchester, UK, 2015
  32. Ged, O. Flys, Z. Silvestri, S. Källberg, F. Tayeb-Chandoul, R. Le Breton, M. Himbert, G. Obein, “Characterizations of specular peaks from a metrological gloss scale”, CIE 216:2015, Proceedings of 28th CIE Session, Manchester, UK, 2015
  33. Le Breton, G. Ged, G. Obein, “Out of plane BRDF measurement at LNE-Cnam using “ConDOR” our primary goniospectrophotometer”, CIE 216:2015, Proceedings of 28th CIE Session, Manchester, UK, 2015
  34. Strothkämper, K.-O. Hauer, Andreas Höpe, “How to Efficiently Characterize Special Effect Coatings”, 33(1), p 1-8, 2016
  35. Flys, S. Källberg, G. Ged, Z. Silvestri and B-G. Rosén, “Characterization of surface topography of a newly developed metrological gloss scale”, Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, 3(4), Sept 2015
  36. Jaanson P, Manoocheri F and Ikonen E , “Goniometrical measurements of fluorescence quantum efficiency”, Sci. Technol. 27, 2016
  37. Efecio A.J., Perales E. Martínez-Verdú F.M., Inlfuencia del iluminante en las evaluaciones de color y textura en automoción, Master Thesis. University of Alicante. (2015)
  38. Tecles J., Viqueira V., Martínez-Verdú F.M., « «Calibración espectral, colorimétrica y fotométrica de una cabina de iluminación de LEDs blancos y monocromáticos modulables »,  Master Thesis. University of Alicante. (2015)
  39. Iacomussi, M. Radis, G. Rossi, « Goniometric and colorimetric properties of paints and varnish”, MMRMA conference, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 9398, San Francisco, USA, Mar 2015
  40. Radis, P. Iacomussi, G. Rossi, “Optical characteristics and visual appearance for artwork materials”, Proc. SPIE 9527, June 2015
  41. Iacomussi, M. Radis, G. Rossi, « Brightness and sparkle appearance of goniochromatic samples”, Electronic Imaging, Measuring, Modeling, and Reproducing Material Appearance 2016, pp. 1-6(6), 2016
  42. Leloup F., Audenaert J., Hanselaer P., “Investigation of the inter-instrument agreement of specular glossmeters”, CIE 216:2015, Proceedings of 28th CIE Session, Manchester, UK, 2015
  43. Ferrero, B. Bernad, J. Campos, E. Perales, J. L. Velázquez, and F. M. Martínez-Verdú, “Color characterization of coatings with diffraction pigments”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 33(5), p. 1978-1988, 2016
  44. Ferrero, A., Campos, J., Bernad, B., Pons, A., Hernanz, M. L., Martínez-Verdú, F. M., Höpe, A., “Consistency analysis of multidimensional gonio-spectrophotometric measurements in interlaboratory comparisons”, Metrologia, 53(4), 2016.
  45. Kirchner, E., van der Lans, I., Ferrero, A., Campos, J., Martínez-Verdú, F. M., & Perales, E., «Fast And Accurate 3D Rendering Of Automotive Coatings”, Poceedings of Color and Imaging Conference, Vol. 2015, No. 1, pp. 154-160, 2015.
  46. Kirchner, E., Van der Lans, I., Perales, E., Martínez-Verdú, F., Campos, J., & Ferrero, A, “Visibility of sparkle in metallic paints”, Opt. Soc. Am. A, 32(5), 921-927, 2015.
  47. G, Leloup F., De Wit Y., Obein G., “Intercomparison of visual gloss psychometric scales”, Proceedings of 4th CIE Expert Symposium on Colour and Visual Appearance, Prague, CZ, CIE x043:2016, Sept 2016
  48. Gómez, O., Perales, E.; Chorro, E.; Viqueira, V.; Martínez-Verdú, F.M. , “Visual and instrumental correlation of sparkle by the magnitude estimation method”, App. Opt. 55(23), 6458-6463, 2016
  49. Gómez, O., Perales, E., Chorro, E.; Burgos, F.J., Viqueira, V., Vilaseca, M., Martínez-Verdú, F.M., Pujol, J., “Visual and Instrumental Assessments of Color Differences in Automotive”, Col. Res. Appl. 41(4), 384-391, 2016
  50. Chorro, E.; Perales, E.; Burgos, F.J.; Gómez, O.; Vilaseca, M.; Viqueira, V.; Pujol, J.; Martínez-Verdú, F.M., “Minimal Number of Measurements for Color, Sparkle and Graininess Characterization in Gonio-apparent Panels”, Col. Tech. 131, 1-7, 2015
  51. Chorro, E.; Perales, E.; Micó-Vicent, B.; Viqueira, V.; Gómez, O.; Martínez-Verdú, F.M.; Ferrero, A.; Campos, J., “Caracterización colorimétrica de muestras fluorescentes con un espectrofluorímetro modular con irradiación/emisión direccional”. Proceedings of XI Congreso Nacional del Color, 2016
  52. Gómez, O.; Perales, E.; Chorro, E.; Viqueira, V.; Martínez-Verdú, F.M.; Ferrero, A.; Campos, J., “Influence of the Effect Pigment Size on the Sparkle Detection Distance”, Proceedings of Color and Imaging Conference, Vol. 2015, No.1, pp. 175-179, 2015
  53. Martínez-Verdú, F.M.; Perales, E.; Chorro, E.; Viqueira, V.; Micó, B.; Gómez, O., ”Theoretical Implementation of the Color Inconstancy Index for Gonio-Apparent Automotive Coatings”, Proceedings of Color and Imaging Conference, Vol. 2015, No.1, pp. 255-261, 2015
  54. Iacomussi, M. Radis, G. Rossi, « Influence of LED lighting on colour evaluation”, CIE x042:2016, Proceedings of CIE 2016 Lighting Quality & Energy Efficiency, Melbourne, 2016
  55. Audenaert J., Hanselaer P., Leloup F., “ Convolution and deconvolution of bidirectional scatter distribution function data to enable inter-instrument comparison”, Proceedings of 4th CIE Expert Symposium on Colour and Visual Appearance, Prague, CZ, CIE x043:2016, Sept 2016
  56. Ferrero, A., Bernad, B., Campos, J., Perales, E., Velázquez, J.L., Martínez-Verdú, F.M., “Multi-angle colour characterization of coatings with diffraction pigments”, Proceedings of 4th CIE Expert Symposium on Colour and Visual Appearance, Prague, CZ, CIE x043:2016, Sept 2016
  57. Ferrero, A., Bernad, B., Campos, J., Perales, E., Martínez-Verdú, F.M.2, Šmíd, M., Porrovecchio, G., Strothkämper, C., “Impact of surface curvature on spectral BRDF of effect coatings”, Proceedings of 4th CIE Expert Symposium on Colour and Visual Appearance, Prague, CZ, CIE x043:2016, Sept 2016
  58. Leloup, F., Audenaert, J., Obein, G., Ged, G., Hanselaer, P., “Repeatability and reproducibility of specular gloss meters in theory and practice“, JCT Research, vol. 13, no. 6, 2016, pp. 941-951
  59. Jaanson P, Pulli T, Manoocheri F and Ikonen E, « A reference material with close to Lambertian reflectance and fluorescence emission profiles”, Metrologia 53(6), 2016
  60. Langovoy, F. Schmähling, G. Wübbeler, “Numerical comparison of sampling strategies for BRDF data manifolds”, Measurement Volume 94, pp. 578–584, 2016
  61. Wübbeler, J. Campos Acosta and C. Elster, “Evaluation of uncertainties for CIELAB color coordinates”, Col. Res. & Appl., 10.1002/col.22109, 2016
  62. Strothkämper, A Ferrero, A Koo, P. Jannson, G. Ged, G Obein, S Källberg, J. Audenaert, F Leloup, F Martinez Verdu, E Perales, A Schirmacher, J Campos, A “Multilateral Spectral Radiance Factor Scale Comparison”, Applied Optics, 56(7), p1996-2006, 2016
  63. Ferrero, C. Strothkämper, B. Bernad, T. Quast, K.-O. Hauer, J. Campos, A. Pons, A. Schirmacher, “BRDF variability of typical diffuse reflectance standards between 380 nm and 1700 nm”, Proceedings of NewRad conference 2017, June 2017.
  64. Li Yang, “Detailed analysis of the UV-adjustment techniques used in paper and graphic industries”, Col Res. & Appl. 42(1), p19-26, 2016
  65. Jaanson P, Manoocheri F, Mäntynen H, Gergely M, Widlowski J-L and Ikonen E., “Gonioreflectometric properties of metal surfaces”, Metrologia 51(8)


  • Leloup, F., Article published in the popular press,   ‘”Maak kennis met het licht van morgen”  (Discover the light of  tommorow)’, Technical journal “Visie op Kunststof”, n°5, September 2013, REG (KUL)
  • PhD. Thesis, ‘ “Gonio-espectrofotómetro para medidas de  BRDF de patrones de reflectancia y objetos gonio-aparentes”‘, March 18th, 2014, Universidad de Zaragoza (Zaragoza, Spain)., CSIC
  • Master thesis, ‘“Metodología para el estudio de los efectos de destello y granulado en recubrimientos  gonioaparentes”’, September 2014, Faculty of Optics and Optoimetry,  University Complutense of Madrid (Madrid, Spain)., CSIC
  • PhD. Thesis, ‘High Accuracy Measurements of Standard  Reflection Materials and Goniochromatic Effect Pigments’, 19. September 2014, Technische Universität Carolo–Wilhelmina zu Braunschweig (Germany), PTB

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